The angle of list is the degree to which a vessel heels (leans or tilts) to either port or starboard at equilibrium—with no external forces acting upon it. If a listing ship goes beyond the point where a righting moment will keep it afloat, it will capsize and potentially sink.
Listing is caused by the off-centerline distribution of weight aboard due to uneven loading or to flooding.
- Kemp, Peter (1976). The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea. Oxford University Press. p. 488. ISBN 0192115537.
- Barrass, Bryan; Derrett, D. R. (2011-02-23). Ship Stability for Masters and Mates. Elsevier. p. 366. ISBN 978-0-08-046008-6.
- Naval Training Publications Detachment (1972). Hull Maintenance Tech 3 & 2. Washington, DC: United States Naval Training Publications. p. 522.